More than one thousand years ago all places, where Peter the Great founded the New Russian
capital, had been settled by Slavs and the Finish tribes. The beginning chronicle and the
oldest Scandinavian "sagas" had known the rivers : Neva, Ladoga, Ilmenj, Luga.
The Saint Olga had definited the size of tribute and made the administrative centers near
the river Neva countryside.
During hundreds years the lands on the banks of the rivers Luga, Narova and Neva and their
flows Slavjanka, Izhora , Mga were the ownership of the all layers of Novgorods' citizens
, of the Tsar, of the prince, of churches and monasteries. During three centuries struggle
between Novgorod and Swedes the lands till the Narova did not know the other authority
than the authority of Novgorod. The territory where the luxuriant residence of imperial
court appeared - The Tsar's village, was included from the oldest time to Novgorods'
At the second quarter of the XIII century , the Sweden from one side and the German
knights from the other side made up their minds to subordinate themselves the Novgorods'
tributers and to catch the key for Novgorod's trade - the flowing of the river Neva, using
the problem situation of the Russian land.
The end of the XVI th and the beginning of the XVII th centuries had been known by the
great success of Swedes. For the first time the banks of the river Neva and the cities
Ivan - Gorod, Koporje, Jama and Korella had to admit the power of the Sweden King. Peter
the Great began the crucial struggle with Sweden and when he only conquered with his army
the flowing of the river Neva, he founded at its mouth the capital. The war with Sweden
had not been ended when the Tsar felt himself so strong at the returning lands to Russia,
that began to built "the funny palaces" around his "paradise",
encouraging for making the same his court. Orienbaum, The Tsar's village, Peterghof,
Ekateringhof had been built long before the end of the Great Northern war. The debate with
Sweden continued the whole one hundred years.
Peter the Great found the region without people and empty: a lot of villages kept the old
Russian names but they were settled by Finns and German colonists.
Taken the mouth of the river Neva Peter the Great made his favourite Alexander Danilovich
Menshikov the Governor of Ingermanlandija, Karelija and Estljandija.
In 1710 Peter the Great decided to hand over the part of the Menshikov's ownership to
Ekaterina Alexeevna, who was not Empress yet. The date of the foundation of the Tsar's
village is the 24th of June 1710, which was spoken about in the letter: - His Majesty is
pleased to give to Ekaterina Alexeevna Sarskaja and Koporskaja granges in the Koporskiji
uyezd with the villages which are owned to them, with the peasants and the all places, and
when you get it those granges with all owned to it villages and others give to her, to
Ekaterina Alexeevna, and from the accountant books those granges write off, and all that
there will be for getting off you write down and send to me the register-
As Ekaterina Alexeevna entered into the ownership of Sarskaja "myza", which
officially became the Tsar's village since 1725, she began to make it better. During the
life of Peter the Great The Empress Ekaterina Alexeevna founded the beginning of the small
park around the new stone wards and ordered to make the part of the forest as the Zoo (the
natural place where the wild animals lived) , she also ordered to surround it with the
fence. Exept the alder grove and the fir "perspectives" ( synonym of the word
"prospect"), planted by the broad of the park, the garden master Jan Rosen had
been charged to plant along the nowadays Sadovaja street the wide fruit garden and to make
frames and greenhouses near the fence of the Zoo.
When Katherin I died the Tsar's village became the ownership of the Princes Elizaveta by
the spirit will of Katherin I. She had to spend money for repairing of the Tsar's village
chambers but she tried to spend as little as she could, though it was her favourite place.
The fruit garden, haymaking, frames and quit - rent - all it spent to cover the
consumptions of the Tsarskoye Selo.
. Each rouble was counted by the Princes. She counted her money for consumptions very
carefully and spent them with great care. She lived only using money from her ownerships
only during 18 years. The singular luxury which she allowed herself during that hard
period of her life was the building of the stone Znamenskaya church, where she wanted to
place especially honored by her the icon of the Sign of the God's mother. There is great
difference between the modestest consumptions of the Princes for her favourite ownership
during her hard long life period and the fairy consumptions which he made when she became
the Empress. Nothing seemed to her enough beautiful for decorations. In the Tsar's village
the splendid stone building with marble columns , with light halls, with the parquet and
marble floors with the shining dome and monumental stairs decorated with gilding rails,
balustrades and statues appeared. Rasstrelly surrounded all the Zoo with the stone wall
and built in it the hunting pavilions in the corners (lustghaus) and the splendid stone
"Monbizhu" in the center; All is lighted with gilding and marble; the painters
were painting the walls, the doors were decorated by rich carving . The Empress did not
like the big quantity of the serving men and that is why Rasstrelly made the project of
Hermitage where tables, dishes and plates were given by the unseeing hand and the serving
men was not need. The small villages with a lot of people who were depended on the palace
quickly grew around the Tsarskoye Selo. There workers, contractors, masters, painters,
architectors, court's service men army's' commands, civil servants and faces of the Tsar's
During the 30-s years reign of the Empress Katherin II the Tsar's village got the highest
point of its prosperity. Than better the state business was than more money the Empress
spent for her favourite residence. By the end of the reign of Katherin II the Tsar's
village changed unrecognizable : Alexandrovskiy palace was built, Bolshoy palace was made
bigger with the annexe of Agates rooms, Cameron's gallery, the great prince corps, the
superstructure of the Church corps and Zubov's corps; the gardens were made wider and
decorated with a lot of new buildings and monuments in honor of Empress's comrades - in -
arms; on the other side of the lake the uyezd's city Sophia appeared. The city Sophia and
Sophijiskiy Cathedral had to hymn the victories of Russia in the Russian - Turkish war
like the monuments in the Tsar's village park.
The best architectors of that time were called by the Empress from the abroad. They were
A. Rinaldy, Ch. Cameron, G. Kvarneghy. They decorated by their works the palace and the
park. V. Neelov was sent abroad with his son for perfecting. Paying attention to the
shortage of water, Katherin II ordered to make the water-pipe from Taitsy, which could be
enough for feeding ponds and for giving enough drinkable water to the Tsar's village and
Sophia. All, that Katherin II made in the Tsar's village, was made firmly, widely,
carefully finished and consistented in details.
From all countrys' residences Katherin II liked the Tsar's village most of all. Beginning
from 1763, exept 2 or 3 years, she lived in the Tsar's village during spring, summer and
left it in autumn when it became cold. Katherin II moving to the Tsar's village with the
small suite devided her time between state's business and different entertainments. Every
day she walked in the park with the suite of court ladies and gentlemen.
In November 1796 Her Majesty was caught heart attack, from which she died. She had been
alive when the legatee of the throne began to break all that had been done by the Empress.
The hard time of Emperor Pavel began. It lasted 5 years. All unfinished buildings were
stopped in the Tsar's village.
During the first years of reign of Alexander I the Tsar's village was forgotten, as it
The court lived on the Elagin island or in Peterghof in summer; only in 1808 The Emperor
paid attention to the neglect of the Tsar's village. The Emperor Alexander I, who spent
all his childhood and youth in the Tsar's village, as it's known, in the manifesto about
the entry to the throne said that he would reign "by law and by heart of the memory
of his favourite died grandmother Empress Katherin the Great". At the attention to
the Tsar's village these words were the leading for the Emperor in all measures.
The monumental gate "For my dear colleagues" was made in honor of the war with
the French, the Big gate, which was almost destroyed, was capitally rebuilt by one of the
best architectors of that time - Stasov; not far from the Alexander's palace the Emperor's
farm appeared; on the place of the old lustghaus the artificial ruin Shapel was built; the
old fence from the Zoo was taken to pieces and its material was used in the building of
the farm and Shapel and building for Lams. By the idea of the Emperor Alexander , in the
Bolshoy palace , in the wing which was built at the end of Ekaterina's reign for Pavel's
children the new highest school was established - The Emperor's Tsar's village Lyceum.
At the last time the Emperor slept in the Tsar's village in 1825 by the way to Taghanrog,
saying good bye in such unusual way with St.-Petersburg. Here in early spring his remains
were met by the Emperor Nicole I and the tsar's family.
Born in the Tsarskoye Selo, "knight Nicole", when he became the Emperor, devided
his rest between Peterghof and the Tsarskoye Selo. His Majesty always lived in Alexander's
At the reign of Nicole I the decoration and the development of the Tsar's village
continued. The City's Central Cathedral was built in the Tsar's village by the order of
His Majesty; in the park on the place of old "Monbizhu " the building of Arsenal
was finished in which the richest collection of weapon was gathered which was the
ownership of the Emperor. On the place of abolished lyceum passion Alexander's cadet corps
for small children was made; the park was decorated by the beautiful gate, Turkish bath
and it was made wider.
In the reign of Emperor Nicole I, the first Russian railroad was built from St.-Petersburg
till the Tsar's village , which was a new performance for people and unuseful thing in our
climate for specialists. In the reign of Emperor Alexander II the city continued to
develop and there was opened the classical gymnasium, there wasn't built any new buildings
but all that was there was kept in good order and there was founded the new Babolov's
In the reign of Emperor Alexander III the court lived in the Tsar's village few. His
Majesty chose for himself the left wing of Alexander's palace. During that reign the
Tsar's village was the first city not only in Russia but in Europe which was full lighted
with the electricity. Since 1894 the Tsar's village developed very quickly . Till 1905 the
court spent the beginning of winter and early spring in the Tsar's village, and since that
year it spent there all winter. By the order of His Majesty in 1895 the considerable
changes were made in Alexander's palace. The Tsar's village got the best water - pipe and
The Tsar's village became one of the most healthy and well - equipped cities in Russia by
the beginning of XX century.
Nicole II who would have to be the last Russian Emperor, was born in Alexander's palace.
It was his favourite palace in the Tsar's village and there Nicole II brought his fiancee,
the Princes Alice Gessenkaya. Since 1905 Alexander's palace became the constant house for
the tsar's family. The sessions of the State Council and the auditions of foreign envoys
were in the Alexander's palace. There the ministers came with their reports, since that
time the Tsar's village became the small capital of the tsar's empire. .
On the 2nd of March 1917 the Tsar renounced from the throne. Some days later, returning
from the Headquarters of the commander - in - chief , he became the prisoner in his own
house. The tsar's family spent there some months. In August 1917 the family was sent to
Siberia. During the night of 17th of July 1918 the tsar's family was shooted in the cellar
of the Ipatiev's house in Ekaterinburg.
1917 was the destroyed whirlwind which carried over the Tsar's village. And it changed all
life in the Tsar's village. Pushkin became one of the provincial cities in Russia. But all
treasures of palaces were opened for sightseeing. Since 1919 after discharging the leading
art quides from their work the squandering of the museum values began. The documents,
which were opened at the last time, have shown there was made the whole plan of removing
numbers of pictures to the Hermitage. At the same time a lot of " little value"
things , which were the ownership of the tsar's family, were given to the workers of the
museum - Ekaterininskiy palace - by the decision of Narcompros (the National Committee of
But especially great losses for the museum collections were made by the activity of Expert
committee organized in February 1919 and leaded by A.M. Gorkiy. Its functions included the
complication of Antiquarian export fund from the nationalized culture value which cost
some milliard gold roubles. Then for organizating and making the communications with the
biggest antiquarian firms of the West M.F Andreeva was sent to Berlin, and other members
of the committee were sent to Paris, London, Florence and Rome
A lot of organizations took part in withdrawal of the priceless things from the palace
collections. That is spoken in the decrees of the Defense Council of 10th October 1919
about " the using the values for turnover" , in theses of Sovnarcom (the Council
of the National Knights) about the organization of "tax fund" by using the
Jewels for getting credit from the foreign banks, in the decree of Sovnarcom of the 26th
of October 1920 established the prize for " the quickest selling things abroad, which
were taken off by the Petrograd Expert Committee".
Further the withdrawal of apart art products was made not only by using the writing orders
but simply by using telephonograms.
But exepting all problems connected with the new historical period in the country life ,
the museum life was regulated in the museums and parks of the city. In the 30-s the
excursion and exploring works were begun, very modest quantity of quide books were
printed, the new exhibitions were opened. At the first time the millions of tourists saw
the treasures of the Russian culture.
In 1937 , when it was 100 years of Pushkin's death, the city got the name of the great
Russian poet - Pushkin
The dangerous word "the war" came to the peace life on 22nd of June 1941 in
sunny day during the great falk fairy in the Pushkins' parks. On the 17th of September the
fascists caught the city. Invaders took the halls of Katherine's and Alexander's palaces,
a lot of houses, kindergartens, schools and sanatoriums for the barracks and living -
rooms. In the Lyceum the tankmen lived, in the pavilion "Hermitage" the anti -
aircraft gunners lived.
Their staff was in Alexander's palace, there also the Gestapo was, in the palaces' cellars
there was the prison. The ground floor of Alexander's palace was changed into a big
garage, Dvortsovaya church became the parking and the repairing place for bicycles.
Two and half years the invaders were in Pushkin. A lot of people who were born and lived
in Pushkin were sent to concentration camps. People were shooted for the smallest breach
of the invaders' rules. The executions took place in the center of the city. On one of
such places there the Chapel of Saint Specious Prince Igor Chernigovskiy was founded in
In summer 1942 the walls of the famous Amber room were taken away, and it is founded till
On the 14th of January the attack of the Soviet army began for the break of the blockade,
and on the 24th of January Pushkin was free from the German invaders.
At the years after the war the city Pushkin became the treasure-house of the Russian
architecture, literature and art, like the bird Phoenix was reborn from the ashes.
And nowadays the comfortable Pushkins' streets are especially good in the warm spring
evenings when in park's alleys along the city roads; in the yards lilac bloom violent, the
new green leaves appear on the trees, the air smells unforgettable.